A major goal of this pilot study was to quantify intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), extra-myocellular lipids (EMCL), unsaturation index (UI) and metabolites such as creatine (Cr), choline (Ch) and carnosine (Car), in the soleus muscle using two-dimensional (2D) localized correlated spectroscopy (L-COSY). Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), controlled by lifestyle management alone, and 9 healthy control subjects, were studied. In T2D patients only, the following measurements were obtained: body mass index (BMI); waist circumference (WC); abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat quantified using breath-held magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); a fasting blood draw for assessment of glucose, insulin, and estimation of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HbA1c, and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Analysis of the soleus muscle 2D L-COSY spectral data showed significantly elevated IMCL ratios with respect to Cr and decreased IMCL UI in T2D when compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). In T2D subjects, Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation of IMCL/Cr with EMCL/Cr (0.679, P < 0.05) and HOMA-IR (0.633, P < 0.05), and a non-significant correlation of visceral and subcutaneous fat with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and other metrics. Characterization of muscle IMCL and EMCL ratios, UI, and abdominal fat, may be useful for the noninvasive assessment of the role of altered lipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of T2D, and for assessment of the effects of future therapeutic interventions designed to alter metabolic dysfunction in T2D.
PDF (1.33 MB PDF FORMAT)
RIS citation (ENDNOTE, REFERENCE MANAGER, PROCITE, REFWORKS)
BibTex citation (BIBDESK, LATEX)
The experience with the journal was excellent. The submission process with simple, reviews were expedited quickly, and communication with the corresponding author was excellent.
All authors are surveyed after their articles are published. Authors are asked to rate their experience in a variety of areas, and their responses help us to monitor our performance. Presented here are their responses in some key areas. No 'poor' or 'very poor' responses were received; these are represented in the 'other' category.See Our Results
Copyright © 2013 Libertas Academica Ltd (except open access articles and accompanying metadata and supplementary files.)