Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a sudden and sustained worsening in cough, dyspnoea and/or sputum production in patients with COPD. AECOPD is an infrequent occurrence in mild COPD, but is a common feature of moderate to severe COPD. It is essential to treat AECOPD early to prevent morbidity and mortality related to the disease. The treatment can be administered at home or in hospital depending on the facility and patient condition. The pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential component of management and complimentary to each other. Prevention of further exacerbation after its optimum treatment is as important as the treatment, as these episodes lead to progressive decline in lung function. Evidence based management; newer advances and direction for future research are included in this review.
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