Here we describe a female patient who developed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) characterized by t(l5;17) translocation at diagnosis. The patient began treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) + chemotherapy. During follow up, the patient was found to be negative for the t(15;17) transcript after 3 months of therapy which remained undetectable, thereafter. However, the emergence of a small clone with a t(8;21) abnormality was observed in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (PB) cells between 3 and 18 months following treatment initiation. The abnormal translocation observed in PB cells obtained at 3 months was detected after the second cycle of consolidation therapy and reappeared at 15 months during maintenance treatment, a period without ATRA. Although based on a single case, we conclude that genetic screening of multiple translocations in AML patients should be requested to allow early identification of other emerging clones during therapy that may manifest clinically following treatment.
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