Background: Coronary sinus rupture (CSR) is a rare preventable complication of cannula insertion for retrograde cardioplegia. In the hands of an inexperienced surgeon, this complication has the risk of potential mortality and morbidity, and its repair is technically challenging. Techniques for repairing CSR have been reported previously. In this study, we determined predictors of CSR following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Methods: Over a four-year period, we retrospectively analyzed 1500 patients in whom a retrograde coronary sinus catheter was used to administer cardioplegic solution. CSR occurred in 15 patients. (12 women and 3 men). Variables such as age, weight, body mass index, gender, aortic clamp time, pump time, cardiomegaly, ejection fraction, and number of grafts were determined for each patient. Factors correlated with CSR were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, and odd ratios of significant variables were determined.
Results: In multiple regression analysis, factors such as female gender, age, weight, and body mass index showed a significant correlation with CSR, and their odd ratios were 4.2, 1.0, 0.96, and 2.2, respectively.
Conclusion: In all 15 cases, a retrograde cannula with a self-inflatable balloon was used and 12 patients were woman with low body mass index. Forceful insertion due to coronary sinus web, fragility of arteries in thin patients, or a small coronary sinus caused CSR in the hands of an inexperienced surgeon.
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