Gene associated with retinoid-interferon-β-induced mortality (GRIM)—19, was originally identifi ed as a critical regulatory protein necessary for Interferon-β-Retinoic acid-induced cell death. Overexpression of GRIM-19 activates cell death and its suppression or inactivation promotes cell growth. GRIM-19 targets multiple proteins/pathways for exerting growth control and cell death. However, GRIM-19 is also required for normal cellular processes. In addition, viruses ‘hijack’ GRIM-19 for their survival. Intracellular bacterial infections and bacterial products have been reported to induce the expression of GRIM-19. In this review, we will discuss the current status of GRIM-19 in growth control and innate immune response.
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