Each year, there are estimated to be approximately 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths due to influenza in the United States. Reports have indicated that most deaths are not directly due to influenza virus, but to secondary bacterial pneumonia, predominantly staphylococcal in origin. Here we identify the presence of candidate blood and urine biomarkers in mice with Staphyococcus aureus and influenza virus co-infection. In this pilot study, mice were grouped into four treatments: co-infected with influenza virus and S. aureus, singly infected with influenza virus or S. aureus, and a control group of uninfected mice (PBS treated). Gene expression changes were identified by DNA-microarrays from blood samples taken at day five post infection. Proteomic changes were obtained from urine samples collected at three and five days post infection using 2-D DIGE followed by protein ID by mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed genes and/or proteins were identified as candidate biomarkers for future validation in larger studies.
PDF (712.01 KB PDF FORMAT)
RIS citation (ENDNOTE, REFERENCE MANAGER, PROCITE, REFWORKS)
BibTex citation (BIBDESK, LATEX)
I would like to extend my gratitude for creating the next generation of a scientific journal -- the science journal of tomorrow. The entire process bespoke of exceptional efficiency, celerity, professionalism, competency, and service.
All authors are surveyed after their articles are published. Authors are asked to rate their experience in a variety of areas, and their responses help us to monitor our performance. Presented here are their responses in some key areas. No 'poor' or 'very poor' responses were received; these are represented in the 'other' category.See Our Results
Copyright © 2013 Libertas Academica Ltd (except open access articles and accompanying metadata and supplementary files.)