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International Journal of Tryptophan Research

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Kynurenine Pathway Pathologies: do Nicotinamide and Other Pathway Co-Factors have a Therapeutic Role in Reduction of Symptom Severity, Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM)

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Publication Date: 21 Jul 2013

Type: Commentary

Journal: International Journal of Tryptophan Research

Citation: International Journal of Tryptophan Research 2013:6 (Suppl. 1) 39-45

doi: 10.4137/IJTR.S11193

Abstract

The definition of dual tryptophan pathways has increased the understanding of the mind-body, body-mind dichotomy. The serotonergic pathway highlights the primary (endogenous) psychiatric disorders. The up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway by physical illnesses can cause neuropathic and immunological disorders1 associated with secondary neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiencies fall within the protein energy malnutrition (PEM) spectrum. They can arise if the kynurenine pathway is stressed by primary or secondary inflammatory conditions and the consequent imbalance of available catabolic/anabolic substrates may adversely influence convalescent phase efficiency. The replacement of depleted or reduced NAD+ levels and other cofactors can perhaps improve the clinical management of these disorders.

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) appear to meet the criteria of a tryptophan-kynurenine pathway disorder with potential neuroimmunological sequelae. Aspects of some of the putative precipitating factors have been previously outlined.2,3 An analysis of the areas of metabolic dysfunction will focus on future directions for research and management.


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My experience with Int J Tryptophan Research has been excellent. The editors and reviewers were most helpful and very "open" intellectually given we were proposing a novel and counter-intuitive hypothesis. The administrative staff have been patient, quick, helpful and friendly. I would and have recommended this group of journals to colleagues.
Dr Adrian Williams (University Hospitals Birmingham, Birmingham, UK)
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