Background: Hypertensive crisis (HC) is a common medical emergency associated with acute rise in arterial blood pressure that leads to end-organ damage (EOD). Therefore, it is imperative to find markers that may help in the prediction of EOD in acute hypertensive crisis.
Aim: To assess the clinical presentations on admission; echocardiographic changes of pulsed and tissue Doppler changes in EOD patients compared with no EOD; and the risk of developing end organ damage for clinical and biochemical variables in hypertension crisis.
Material and Methods: The data of 241 patients with hypertensive crisis with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of >180 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >120 mmHg were extracted from patients files. Patients divided into hypertensive emergency (HE) with EOD, n = 62 and hypertensive urgency (HU) without EOD, n = 179. LV hypertrophy on ECG, echo parameters for wall thickness, left Ventricular mass index (LVMI), Body mass index (BMI), pulse Doppler ratio of early filling velocity E wave to late A wave (E/A) and ratio of E wave velocity to tissue Doppler Em to E wave (E/Em) were evaluated. Serum creatinine, hemoglobin, age, gender, body mass Index (BMI), history of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension, stroke and hyperlipidemia were recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied for risk prediction of end organ damage of clinical variables.
Results: Patients with HE compared with HU were significantly older, with a significantly higher SBP on admission, high BMI and LVMI. Further there were significantly higher E/A ratio on Doppler echo and higher E/Em ratio on tissue Doppler echocardiogram. Multiple regression analysis with adjustment for age and sex shows positive predictive value with odds ratio of SBP on admission >220 mmHg of 1.98, serum creatinine > 120 µg/L of 1.43, older age > 60 year of 1.304, obesity (BMI ≥ 30) of 1.9, male gender of 2.26 and left ventricle hypertrophy on ECG of 1.92. The hemoglobin level, history of smoking, hyperlipidemia and DM were with no significant predictive value. The pulsed Doppler E/A ratio was ≥ 1.6, E/Em > 15, LVMI > 125 gm/m2 in patients with EOD compared with those without.
Conclusion: In patients presented with hypertensive crisis, the echo indices of E/A ratio and E/Em ratio of tissue Doppler are significantly higher in patients with hypertensive emergency compared to hypertensive urgency. The left ventricle hypertrophy on ECG, high LV mass index of >125 gm/m2, BMI > 30, old age > 60 year, male gender and history of hypertension and stroke were positive predictors of poor outcome and end organ damage.
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